The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to increase the charge limit for propane, isobutane and R441A to 150 g from 57 g in new household refrigerators and freezers under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program, a move that would open the U.S. domestic market to hydrocarbon-based refrigeration appliances.
The EPA’s new use condition for flammable (A3) refrigerants is linked to UL 60335-2-24, Edition, which was revised in late April of this year to increase the hydrocarbon charge allowed in U.S. domestic refrigerators to 150 g from 57 g, the amount allowed under the previous standard, UL 250. The previous 57 g limit was widely seen as an impediment to the adoption of energy-efficient hydrocarbon refrigeration in the U.S. domestic market. Elsewhere in the world, where 150 g has long been the charge limit for domestic refrigerators, hydrocarbon units have gained substantial market share.
The Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) and the North American Sustainable Refrigeration Council (NASRC) submitted a petition in September asking that the EPA take this step.
“The U.S. market has lagged behind the rest of the world for many years in adopting climate-friendly fridges, due to an outdated restrictive standard that had prevented hydrocarbon refrigerators used globally from entering the market,” said Avipsa Mahapatra, Climate Campaign Lead for the Washington, D.C.-based EIA. “This rule will allow innovative American appliance manufacturers to catch up with the rest of the world.”
Each year U.S. consumers purchase about 12 million new household refrigerators and freezers. Replacing the HFC commonly used as refrigerant (R134a) in this sector with hydrocarbons could avoid emissions of up to 3.7 million metric tons of direct CO2 equivalent annually, according to EIA. Hydrocarbon fridges are also found to be more efficient than HFC units, the NGO noted.
In a report called “Bringing the U.S. Fridge Market into the 21st Century,” EIA pointed out that multinational companies like AB Electrolux of Sweden, Samsung Electronics and Haier selling domestic refrigerators with R134a in the U.S. are already producing and selling models using hydrocarbons in other markets.
Efforts are also underway globally and in the U.S. to increase the allowable hydrocarbon charge in commercial refrigerators above 150 g. The IEC is considering raising the limit for flammable A3 refrigerants to 500 g.
The EPA said it’s submitting the rule change – titled “Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone: Revision to References for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector to Incorporate Latest Edition of Certain Industry, Consensus-based Standards” – for publication in the Federal Register. The change is considered “a direct final rule,” barring “adverse comment” received within 45 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. Comments (identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2017-0472) can be submitted to the Federal eRulemaking Portal, https://www.regulations.gov.
The EPA “is taking this action as a direct final rule without prior proposal because EPA views this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipates no adverse comments,” the agency said. “The action does not place any significant burden on the regulated community and ensures consistency with industry standards.”
If the EPA receives adverse comment, it will withdraw this direct final rule and address all public comments in any subsequent final rule.
Article Source: http://hydrocarbons21.com/articles/7980/epa_proposes_rule_to_boost_hc_charge_limit_for_household_fridges
Allergies and causative allergens affect millions of people worldwide every year. The newly published book Allergy and Allergen Immunotherapy: New Mechanisms and Strategies, edited by A.B. Singh, provides industry leading knowledge on airborne allergens in both indoor and outdoor environments from Europe, the U.S., India, and Iran.
Written by internationally recognized experts in the field the book includes chapters about:
• Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Diagnosis of Allergy
• Aerobiology and Allergic Diseases
• Pollen Allergy in the Tropics and Temperate Regions
• Indoor Air Pollutants
• Allergy in Children
• Food Allergy Evaluation
• Allergen Immunotherapy and Anti IgE
Chapter 6, Indoor Pollutants with Reference to Health and Hygiene, was authored by Dr. Rajiv R. Sahay, director of Environmental Diagnostics Laboratory (EDLab) and Alan L. Wozniak, President of Pure Air Control Services, Inc.
“In recent years, indoor air quality has become significantly important due to energy tight buildings and changing habits of occupants. In fact, the EPA has ranked indoor air pollution amongst the top five environmental dangers.” says Dr. Rajiv Sahay, Director of EDLab, “I am delighted to summarize this complex topic to make users knowledgeable about investigations and methods for the appropriate management of indoor air quality.”
This chapter discusses how health and hygiene are affected by common air pollutants found inside of buildings. It also covers the testing, analysis of numerical reference points for indoor air pollutants. Other features include comprehensive keywords and reference sections. In the chapter you will find a numerical referenced IAQ guideline to indoor air quality baseline conditions. This information provides insight on both quantitative and qualitative indoor pollutant levels and what is considered to be normal in today’s buildings.
The book, as a whole, not only deals with the basics of allergies, immunotherapy and indoor air quality, but also covers safety considerations of genetically modified food allergens. This innovative volume is well suited for aerobiologists, research scientists, clinicians, environmentalists, and regulatory agencies. It would also be of interest for clinicians and patients of allergies as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic management of allergies in tropical regions.
For specific questions on indoor air quality testing and analysis please contact Dr. Rajiv Sahay, CIAQP, FIAS at 1-800-422-7873 ext. 304 or email@example.com
About Environmental Diagnostics Laboratory (EDLab)
Alan Wozniak founded Pure Air Control Services, Inc. (PACS) in 1984 as a small, mechanical, contracting firm and has since set the industry standard for indoor environmental quality diagnosis, environmental laboratory and remediation. Pure Air Control Services has serviced more than 600 million square feet of indoor environments in over 10,000 facilities.
EDLab (established in 1992) at PACS is an environmental lab offering complete and comprehensive indoor environmental microbiology laboratory services. They include: microbiology, aerobiology, chemistry, allergen assays and microscopy designed to meet all your indoor air needs. EDLab supports IAQ investigations by assisting with strategic sampling plan development and supplying media collection equipment while performing a wide range of environmental analyses.
The company’s expanding client roster includes city, county, state and federal government agencies, including schools and universities, as well as the healthcare industry and commercial corporations making Pure Air Control Services/EDLab the reliable industry leader in IAQ.
Article Source: http://pureaircontrols.com/pure-air-controls-edlab-new-allergen-immunotherapy-book/