Why HVAC Restoration Makes Sense to Your Bottom Line

HVAC Restoration Process

Commercial and especially institutional properties across the United State have to maintain aging infrastructure on a daily basis. One of the most critical components to a building’s health, occupant comfort and energy efficiency is the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, in particular air handling units (AHU) found on rooftops and in mechanical rooms. It has been estimated that the mean age of a commercial building is nearly 50 years old, with many government and higher education buildings being much older. On average the HVAC equipment lifecycle is around 25 years, with rooftop AHU lifespans being a bit shorter due to environmental operating conditions. Most asset managers or facility directors look at replacing these AHUs or completely redesigning the system between the 15 to 20 year milestone. But, considering the number of AHU, financial hard costs and downtime, is replacement the only option? What about HVAC restoration?

Consider this, the basic design and function of an AHU has changed very little in the last 100 years. Cabinet. Blower. Coil. Sure, more advanced control systems have been developed and implemented but they are only as good as how the AHU itself is performing. That or the controls must be reprogrammed to work with inefficiency at the AHU, which in turn can throw the entire building envelope out of balance. The good news is there are processes, like HVAC New Life, that can restore the AHU to near factory specification for a fraction of the cost of redesign or replacement!

The HVAC Restoration “WHY” Factors

Indoor Air Quality and People
Why was HVAC invented in the first place? This may seem like a rhetorical question, but it bears mentioning: HVAC was invented for the comfort of the building occupants! The HVAC of a building has a tremendous effect on the people within the indoor environment. Not the least of which is ventilation and with that the air that is breathed. It has been estimated humans breath about 3,000 gallons of air day. The HVAC system is not only responsible for the exchange of air and thermal comfort in a building, but also keeping that air clean. Even with the best filtration, evaporator coils in the AHU can become fouled with dust (mostly comprised of human skin cells as this CABA white paperillustrates) which in turn becomes a food source for microbes such as bacteria and fungi (mold). Microbials can cause a range of issues from unpleasant odors to full blown allergen triggers or worse that can affect the health and productivity of the building occupant. This can be costly to a business or institution.

Even with new equipment IAQ issues can quickly compound. Routine cleaning of the AHU and especially the coils is always recommended. Hygienic cleaning is the important first step in the HVAC restoration. Chemical rinsing of the coil only superficially cleans and can eliminate some microbial odors. However, steam cleaning the interior of the AHU and evaporator coils goes beyond chemical cleaning in many ways. The increased pressure driving the steam penetrates completely through the coil to eliminate all fouling, while the high temperatures provide thorough microbial disinfection. Additionally, pre and post steam cleaning bio-enzyme treatments on the coil can also impede the return of microbial elements. In fact, a CABA white paper found steam coil cleaning to be a highly effective antimicrobial solution while also demonstrating optimized system performance. More on that later.

Beyond the benefits of steam coil cleaning, flexible, antimicrobial/antioxidant coatings and drain pan liners, as well as zero porosity, no-fiberglass insulation included in the restoration process improve both IAQ and equipment longevity.

HVAC Restoration Exterior AHU

Restoration is Less Disruptive to Occupants
Just like HVAC replacement, restoration projects across a campus of buildings are undertaken in phases. The major difference is that HVAC restoration causes less disruption to the occupants of the building. Remember the productivity factor mentioned above? Well, replacing large systems result in the need for temporary cooling systems to implemented while the main system is shut down, removed, then replaced. This can cause the building to be out of balance, not just from an engineering perspective but from a workflow point of view as well. Temp cooling can be noisy and change traffic patterns in hallways and offices. HVAC restoration often takes place outside of normal operating hours at nights or on weekends. The system is shut down, cleaned, primed, recoated and reinsulated all when when the building is unoccupied. With restoration there is very little downtime in the building’s normal operations and time is money!

Sustainability & Energy Efficiency
In most cases equipment replacement for existing buildings is a 1:1 swap. Meaning that AHU being replaced was already designed to be the right size for the portion of the facility it is servicing. Sometimes replacements involve a rethinking of the design or specification of the equipment. Of course, this can lead to additional downtime as previously referenced. HVAC Restoration optimizes the AHU in place. This can be incredibly useful in situations with tight mechanical rooms such as historic buildings where the architecture cannot be altered to accommodate new equipment. Furthermore, HVAC restoration reduces the carbon footprint of replacement because is no need for new equipment to be transported to the site and old equipment removed and trucked away to the scrapyard. Speaking of scrapping, this too increases the carbon footprint of a replacement project in the energy it takes to break down the old equipment for recycling, the recycling process itself and/or just relegating the entire AHU to a landfill.

Now, back to that steam coil cleaning process. While there is no doubt that a new AHU will be more efficient than an older neglected one, units restored with the steam coil cleaning process can be just as efficient as new. Consider a recent case studyconducted by Pure Air Control Services, Inc. and Georgia Tech University. M&V testing conducted before and after the cleaning, done independently from both parties, found that Pure Air Control’s proprietary PURE-Steam process improved airflow by 42.6%, Delta-P by 22% and added 7 tons of cooling capacity to the system in four hours of cleaning. It took a 25-ton system that was operating at 15 tons and got it back to near spec at 22 tons! The CABA white paper also backs these kinds of consistent results with the steam process. Steam cleaned coils also work in conjunction with existing or new controls program the system for optimal performance.

Freeing Capital Expenditure Budgets (CAPEX)
HVAC Restoration “increases the useful lifespan” of an asset. As such, restoration can be purchased and depreciated out of CAPEX just like replacement! This is a very lucrative benefit when comparing restoration and replacement during cost/benefit analyses. On average the hard costs of labor and materials for HVAC restoration are 1/10 that of HVAC replacement. Now factor in the human resource and energy savings and it’s easy to see that HVAC restoration make sense over total new replacement.

The University of Central Florida Rosen Campus projected that it would cost them $1,200,000 to replace all 15 rooftop AHUs. They were able to restore all 15 units for about $120,000 with zero disruption to their day to day operations. Just imagine where they might spend that freed up $1 million in CAPEX!

Sparing Operational Expenditure Budgets (OPEX)
Because HVAC restoration can be purchased with CAPEX and the results bring the equipment to near new condition OPEX can be spared for use towards more critical maintenance issues. This is especially helpful with facilities that constantly operate in a deferred maintenance scenario. HVAC often falls into poor cleanliness and disrepair because of deferred maintenance. Restore it using CAPEX and the save OPEX for pressing concerns!

Other Considerations
Whether undertaking an HVAC replacement or restoration program the cornerstone data needed to proceed can be found in the facility’s Mechanical Inventory. Hopefully, this is a complete resource that includes all the nomenclature, specifications, serial numbers, ages and service records of the HVAC equipment used in the facility. If a facility doesn’t have a full inventory on hand it is recommended that a total assessment be made, including visual inspection notes and M&V testing prior to any decision being made. This is critical in proactive planning from a maintenance standpoint regardless of plans for replacement or restoration. It will also be extremely helpful in prioritizing AHUs for when and what type of restoration is needed. It is also a key component in logging for a preventative maintenance program that includes annual steam coil cleaning to maintain energy efficiency as well as for warranty tracking.

Of course, not every single AHU is a candidate for HVAC restoration and solid Mechanical Inventory data should flag the units that absolutely need to be replaced. But at the same time, it will also demonstrate that the vast majority of units can and should be restored for many additional years of operations and cost savings.

For more information on HVAC Restoration processes like the innovative HVAC New Life and PURE-Steam services please contact Alan Wozniak, CIAQP, CIEC, President, Pure Air Control Services, Inc. 1-800-422-7873 ext. 802

Article Source: http://pureaircontrols.com/why-hvac-restoration-makes-sense/

Facility Managers Nationwide Learn About Indoor Air Quality and HVAC Energy Efficiency

Pure Air Control Services Inc., will feature building health, occupant comfort and HVAC energy efficiency at Building Operating Management’s National Facilities Management and Technology Expo 2018.

NFMT Baltimore General Session

Baltimore MD, Facility Managers know the daily grind of juggling multiple assets and systems to keep their buildings operating the best they can. Often times budgets and maintenance programs are put at odds. Preventative maintenance quickly becomes deferred maintenance. This is when the vast majority of indoor air quality (IAQ) and HVAC energy efficiency issues begin to occur. In most cases addressing these issues later rather than sooner end up costing more in downtime and dollars spent.

We spend 90% of our time in shared, indoor environments. If something is amiss, it can wreak havoc on the organization’s biggest asset within their building: the people! Consider that a World Health Organization (WHO) report found that 1 in 3 buildings are afflicted with Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) which affects 64 million U.S. workers. These workers experience two or more of the following symptoms that can lead to lost productivity or absence: Nose irritation, Eye irritation and Headaches. SBS can be attributed to the failing of key performance metrics in a building operations and engineering, including the HVAC system.

Consider this, less than 3/16 of an inch of fouling across an evaporator coil can decrease the efficiency of that air handling unit by 21% or more! That performance hit, combined with a cool, damp, environment creates the worst-case scenario for mold and bacteria growth which can affect building occupants!

Pure Air Control Services Inc., will be talking about how they have helped their clientele to improve IAQ and energy efficiency at Booth 2515. On display will be their three specialized divisions, Building Sciences, Environmental Diagnostics Laboratory, and Building Remediation Sciences. Each of these teams works together to provide testing, analysis and engineered solutions to optimize facility IAQ and HVAC system performance, including energy efficiency.

At the booth will be an interactive HVAC evaporator coil demonstration to shows the efficacy of Pure Air’s proprietary PURE-Steam coil cleaning method compared to doing nothing to a clogged coil. The demo also outlines the benefits of their HVAC New Life total hygienic restoration. This unique restoration process allows facilities to extend the life of aging HVAC equipment for 1/10th of the cost of total replacement! IAQ Solutions Specialists will be on hand to discuss IAQ problem solving through testing and remediation services that can put building health and energy efficiency back on track!

NFMT 2018
Booth 2515
March 20-22
Baltimore Convention Center
Baltimore Maryland

For more information or to register for the conference please click here.

About Pure Air Control Services, Inc.
Pure Air Control Services, Inc. was established in 1984 as a small, mechanical, contracting firm and has since set the industry standard for indoor environmental quality diagnosis, environmental laboratory and remediation. Pure Air Control Services has serviced more than 600 million square feet of indoor environments in over 10,000 facilities.

The company’s nationally performed services include: Building Sciences evaluations; Building Health Check IAQ assessments; a CDC ELITE Environmental Microbiology Laboratory; Environmental Project Management; HVAC New Life Restoration and PURE-Steam Coil Cleaning/Mold Remediation Services, among other indoor environmental services.

Article Source: http://pureaircontrols.com/facility-managers-learn-iaq-hvac-energy-efficiency/

Judge orders Trump administration to implement energy limits

SAN FRANCISCO — A federal judge in San Francisco on Thursday ordered the Trump administration to implement energy-use limits for portable air conditioners and other products that were adopted during the last days of the Obama presidency.

The U.S. Department of Energy was required to put the energy-efficiency standards into effect after a 45-day period to identify any errors and did not have the authority to continue to assess them, U.S. District Judge Vince Chhabria said.

The ruling came in two lawsuits — one filed by New York, California and other states and the other by environmental groups.

The U.S. Department of Justice did not immediately comment. The lawsuits over the energy standards are among a spate of legal actions challenging decisions by the Trump administration to roll back environmental protections.

The states argued that the new standards would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, save businesses and consumers billions of dollars, and conserve enough energy to power more than 19 million households for a year.

Chhabria gave the DOE 28 days to publish the standards — the step needed to make them legally enforceable.

 The standards at issue also cover air compressors, commercial packaged boilers and uninterruptible power supplies. There is currently no federal energy standard for air compressors, uninterruptible power supplies or portable air conditioners, according to the states’ lawsuit.

The Obama administration signed off on them in December 2016 and posted them online for a 45-day review period intended to spot any errors.

Chhabria said the Trump administration did not have the authority assess, modify or withdraw an energy standard after that period.

The other states in the lawsuit are: Connecticut, Illinois, Maine, Vermont, Washington, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Oregon and Maryland. The City of New York is also a plaintiff.

Article Source: http://www.telegraphherald.com/ap/business/article_92ad26a9-b419-5206-8b50-7cc2461a956b.html

Environmental Measure Aides Asthma Interventions

A newly developed Environmental Scoring System (ESS) proved useful in a variety of home-based asthma intervention programs despite differences in settings, staffing, populations, and administration.

The ESS was developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to help address the highest asthma prevalence in adults among US states. Massachusetts is also confronting one of the highest percentage of children with uncontrolled asthma and the associated high rates of emergency department visits, hospital admissions and school absenteeism, according to rankings by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Zhao Dong, MS, ScD, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, and colleagues who tested the ESS in several community-based programs considered these healthcare challenges, and the efforts to address them.

“There is evidence that asthma disparities can be substantially reduced by comprehensive care, both through the health care system and through home-based intervention programs,” they wrote.

The ESS yields a composite score ranging from 0 to 6 from a binary score of 0 or 1 for each of 6 asthma triggers: dust, mold, pests, smoke, pets, and chemicals. In preliminary assessments, the ESS was reduced at the end of a series of home visit interventions. The questions remained as to whether the ESS could be incorporated into various and differing intervention programs and relate to clinical outcomes.

“Given the large variability in the implementation of specific asthma programs and design of survey questions to collect information on asthma triggers, it is unclear whether ESS would be a good approach for measuring environmental triggers and predicting asthma outcomes across different programs and populations,” Dong and colleagues wrote.

In an editorial accompanying the evaluation of the ESS, Delaney Gracy, MD, MPH, Chief Medical Officer, Children’s Health Fund, New York, NY, emphasized the importance of developing and validating such tools.

“In a time when our health system is increasingly focused on quality measures, value-based care incentive models, and quantitative impact assessment, well-designed tools, methods and comparative values are keys to meaningful data and the assimilation of information that can drive change,” Gracy wrote.

Dong and colleagues evaluated the ESS in 6 community asthma intervention programs, including the Boston Public Health Commission Asthma Home Visit Program (BPHC), the Boston Children’s Hospital Community Asthma Initiative (CAI), and Tufts Medical Center Floating Hospital for Children Asthma Prevention and Asthma Initiative (Tufts).

Among all participants, the completion of intervention visits was marked by an increase in the average of total scores on the Asthma Control Test, corresponding to reduction in symptoms, and a reduction in the number of emergency department visits and in ESS scores. The magnitude and statistical significance of the changes varied between programs, however.

Dong and colleagues found that statistically significant reduction in total ESS was primarily driven by reduction in the mold score in the BPHC and CAI  programs.

“Nevertheless, total ES was able to capture the overall variability in environmental triggers over visits regardless of the performance of each individual score,” they wrote.

All the studied programs improved asthma outcomes to varying degrees, and the ESS tool appeared to be widely implementable, without much variation of program and survey designs, Dong and colleagues indicated.

Gracy welcomed evidence that the measure could be useful to the intervention programs.

“This type of tool has the potential to be very important in creating needed cross-program comparisons, setting benchmarks of success, accumulating impact data to support intervention reimbursement, and facilitating the impact assessment of individual programs,” Gracy wrote.

The study, “Evaluation of the Environmental Scoring System in Multiple Child Asthma Intervention Programs in Boston, Massachusetts,” was published online in the American Journal of Public Health.

Article Source: http://www.mdmag.com/medical-news/environmental-measure-aides-asthma-interventions

Federal Employer Rights and Responsibilities Following an OSHA Inspection-1996

After an Inspection
An inspection of your workplace was conducted in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Executive Order 12196, and 29 CFR Part 1960, Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters. The compliance safety and health officer (CSHO) who conducted the inspection has found conditions that are in violation of the Act, Executive Order 12196, or 29 CFR Part 1960, and you have been issued a Notice of Unsafe or Unhealthful Working Conditions, OSHA-2H Form (OSHA Notice) that explains in detail the exact nature of the alleged violation(s).

This pamphlet contains important information regarding your rights and responsibilities under the Act, Executive Order 12196, and 29 CFR Part 1960. For each apparent violation found during the inspection, the compliance officer discussed the following with you:

The nature of the violation,
Possible abatement measures you may take to correct the violative condition, and
Possible abatement dates you may be required to meet.
Types of Violations
WILLFUL: A willful violation is defined as a violation in which the employer either knowingly failed to comply with a legal requirement (purposeful disregard) or acted with plain indifference to employee safety.
SERIOUS: A serious violation exists when the workplace hazard could cause an accident or illness that would most likely result in death or serious physical harm, unless the employer did not know or could not have known of the violation.
REPEATED: A Federal agency may be cited for a repeated violation if the agency has been cited previously for the same or a substantially similar condition and, for a serious violation, OSHA’s regionwide (see last page) inspection history for the agency lists a previous OSHA Notice issued within the past five years; or, for an other-than-serious violation, the establishment being inspected received a previous OSHA Notice issued within the past five years.
OTHER-THAN-SERIOUS: A violation that has a direct relationship to job safety and health, but is not serious in nature, is classified as “other-than-serious.”
Posting Requirements
When you receive an OSHA Notice, you must post it (or a copy of it) at or near the place where each violation occurred to make employees aware of the hazards to which they may be exposed. The OSHA Notice must remain posted for 3 working days or until the hazard is abated, whichever is longer. (Saturdays, Sundays and Federal holidays are not counted as working days).

Employer Options
As an employer who has been cited, you may:

Correct the condition by the date set in the OSHA Notice and/or,
Request an Informal Conference within 15 working days from the time you received the OSHA Notice with the OSHA Area Director to discuss the violations and/or the abatement dates.
How to Comply
For violations cited in the OSHA Notice, you must promptly notify the OSHA Area Director by letter that you have taken the appropriate corrective action within the time set forth in the OSHA Notice. The notification you send the Area Director is generally referred to as a LETTER OF CORRECTIVE ACTION. It must explain the specific action taken with regard to the violation and state the date each corrective action was taken.

If you have abatement questions after the inspection, they should be discussed with the Area Director in the informal conference.

When the OSHA Notice permits an extended period of time for abatement, you must insure that employees are adequately protected during this time. If this is the case, you must provide OSHA with a periodic progress report on your actions taken in the interim.

Informal Conference
You may request an informal conference with the OSHA Area Director to discuss the violations. You may use this opportunity to do any of the following:

Obtain a better explanation for the violations cited.
Obtain a more complete understanding of the specific standards that apply.
Discuss ways to correct violations.
Discuss problems concerning the abatement dates.
Discuss problems concerning employee safety practices.
Resolve disputed violations.
Obtain answers to any other questions you may have.
You are encouraged to take advantage of the opportunity to have an informal conference if you foresee any difficulties in complying with any part of the OSHA Notice. Employee representatives have the right to participate in any informal conference or negotiations between the Area Director or Regional Administrator and the employer.

If you agree that the violations do exist, but you have a valid reason for wishing to extend the abatement date(s), you may discuss this with the Area Director during the informal conference. The Area Director may issue an amended OSHA Notice that changes the abatement date prior to the expiration of the 15 working day period.

Every effort will be made to resolve the issues at an informal conference. If, however, an issue is not resolved by the Area Director, a summary of the discussion together with the agency’s position on the unresolved issues shall be forwarded to the Federal Agency Program Officer (FAPO) within 5 working days of the informal conference.

The FAPO/Regional Administrator will confer with the appropriate Regional agency official before making a decision on the unresolved issues.
If the FAPO/Regional Administrator, in consultation with the Area Director, decides that the item in question should remain unchanged on the OSHA Notice, the appropriate agency officials shall be advised.
If there is still an unresolved issue after the Regional review, the agency may send a letter of appeal to OSHA’s Office of Federal Agency Programs (OFAP).
OFAP will review the disputed issues and discuss these with top agency officials, as appropriate, to obtain resolution. The decision at the National Office level, in consultation with the Regional Administrator, FAPO, and Area Director, is final.
Under the OSHA Act, Executive Order 12196 and 29 CFR Part 1960, Federal agencies do not have the right to contest the OSHA Notice.
Petition for Modification of Abatement (PMA)
Abatement dates are assigned on the basis of the best information available at the time the OSHA Notice is issued. When you are unable to meet an abatement date because of uncontrollable events or other circumstances, you may file a Petition for Modification of Abatement (PMA) with the OSHA Area Director.

The petition must be in writing and must be submitted no later than one working day after the abatement date. To show clearly that you have made a good-faith effort to comply, the PMA must include all of the following information before it can be considered:

Steps you have taken in an effort to achieve compliance and dates they were taken;
Additional time you need to comply;
Why you need the additional time;
Interim steps you are taking to safeguard your employees against the cited hazard(s) until the abatement; and
A certification that the petition has been posted, the date of posting and, when appropriate, a statement that the petition has been furnished to an authorized representative of the affected employees. The petition must remain posted for 10 working days, during which employees may file an objection.
A PMA may be granted or objected to by the OSHA Area Director. If a PMA is granted, a monitoring inspection may be conducted to ensure that conditions are as they have been described and that adequate progress toward abatement has been made.
When agreement to extend the abatement date cannot be reached at the Area Office, the agency may bring unresolved issues to the Regional Administrator/FAPO for resolution with his counterpart in the agency. Issues not resolved at the regional level shall be forwarded to the Director, OFAP, for resolution with agency headquarters in consultation with the Regional Administrator, the FAPO, and the Area Director.

Further information on PMAs may be obtained from any OSHA Area/District office.

Alternate Standards
Agency heads may apply for approval of an alternate standard where deemed necessary and, after consulting with employees or their representatives, including appropriate safety and health committees, notify the Secretary of Labor and request approval of such standards. The Secretary will not approve alternate standards unless it provides affected employees equivalent or greater protection.

The agency head must provide the Secretary with the following:

A statement of why the agency cannot comply with the OSHA standard or wants to adopt an alternate standard;
A description of the alternate standard;
An explanation of how the alternate standard provides equivalent or greater protection for the affected employees;
A description of interim protective measures afforded employees until a decision is rendered by the Secretary of Labor; and
A summary of written comments, if any, from interested employees, employee representatives, and occupational safety and health committees.
Employees and other interested groups are encouraged to participate in the alternate standard process.

Employee Courses of Action
Employees or their authorized representatives may object to any or all of the abatement dates set for violations if they believe them to be unreasonable. A written notice of their objections must be filed with the OSHA Area Director within 15 working days after the employer receives the OSHA Notice.

The filing of an employee objection does not suspend the employer’s obligation to abate the hazard(s).

Employees also have the right to object to a PMA. Such objections must be in writing and must be sent to the Area Office within 10 days of service or posting.

Follow-up Inspection and Failure to Abate
If you receive a Notice of Unsafe or Unhealthful Working Conditions, a followup inspection may be conducted to verify that you have done the following:

Posted the OSHA Notice as required,
Corrected the violations as required in the OSHA Notice, and/or
Adequately protected employees and made appropriate progress in correcting the hazards during multi-step or lengthy abatement periods.
Any new violations discovered during a followup inspection will be cited, as well as any hazards which have not been abated by the abatement date so specified on the OSHA Notice. The latter violations will be cited in the form of a Failure to Abate Notice.
Employer Discrimination
Executive Order 12196 and 29 CFR Part 1960.46 prohibit Federal agencies from discharging or otherwise discriminating against an employee who has exercised any right under these laws, including the right to make safety and health complaints or to request an OSHA inspection. In addition, Federal employees may have protection for such activity under the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989.

Complaints from employees who believe they have been discriminated against will be investigated by the Office of Special Counsel except in those agencies not covered by the Whistleblower Act. Agencies exempted from the Whistleblower Act are:

A government corporation, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority;
the Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, or certain other intelligence agencies excluded by the President;
the General Accounting Office;
the U.S. Postal Service or Postal Rate Commission;
the Federal Bureau of Investigation; and,
Federal prisoners.
If the Federal employee’s agency is exempted from the Whistleblower Act, the alleged reprisal is forwarded to the agency’s Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO).

There is no time limit for filing a complaint with the Office of Special Counsel. To obtain further information on this matter, employees may contact OSHA and/or the Office of Special Counsel.

Providing False Information
All information reported to OSHA by employers and employees must be accurate and truthful.

Additional Information
For further information and assistance, please contact your OSHA Area Director.

Related Publications
A single free copy of the following materials can be obtained from the OSHA Publications Office, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room N3101, Washington, D.C. 20210, (202) 219-4667

Chemical Hazard Communication (OSHA 3084)
How to Prepare For Workplace Emergencies (OSHA 3088)
Job Hazard Analysis (OSHA 3071)
29 CFR Part 1960, Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters
Recordkeeping and Reporting Guidelines for Federal Agencies (OSHA 2014) can be obtained from OSHA, Office of Federal Agency Programs, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room N3112, Washington, D.C. 20210, (202) 219-9329.

Visit: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/fedrites.html

Commentary: Green buildings, Singapore’s natural ally for a greener future

Green buildings look like nice places to live and work in. They may also hold the key to Singapore’s fight against climate change as the Garden City continues to grow, says one design expert.

SINGAPORE: It is the year 2500. We travel with driverless cars, Mars is a much loved tourist spot, and robots live and walk among us as peers.

One catch – we’re all underwater, because sea levels have risen more than six metres, based on projections by some scientists.

Returning to present day, Singapore has just turned 52, and we probably should start thinking about how to avoid the above fate.

Singapore’s meteoric economic rise over many decades has launched a landscape of towering skyscrapers in the compact city-state. Her buildings contribute to almost a quarter of all emissions here. Offices, shopping malls, hotels, education institutions and healthcare facilities consume almost a third of Singapore’s electricity.

The greenhouse gases and carbon emissions generated by these buildings and their power sources are contributing to climate change and changing Singapore’s ecosystem’s natural processes, at an increasingly alarming rate.

The global fight against climate change is real, and Singapore, aptly nicknamed the Garden City, might just have the potential to combat it through technology and green building design.


The clean and green environment that Singaporeans enjoy and are so proud of is part of this Garden City’s legacy, left over from earlier decades of the city placing the highest priority on protecting the environment. 

For a country that has signed the Paris Climate Change Agreement and been a vocal supporter of environment protection, building design can be a key opportunity to contribute.

Design of a building’s exterior can aid in the fight against climate change. Solar panels are seen here on the rooftop of an office building in Singapore. (File photo: AFP/Roslan Rahman)

Sceptics ask, how does design come into play exactly? Can something that involves so much aesthetic content really make a noticeable dent in an issue as critical as global warming?


An intensively urban community, Singapore uses a significant amount of energy.

But with the Building Construction Authority aiming for 80 per cent of buildings to be Green Mark-certified by 2030, and awareness about climate change increasing every day, we are on the right track to turn that around.

Green buildings, designed to use resources more efficiently and cause minimal damage to the natural environment, have been hailed as a way to cope with the impact of climate change and reduce the environmental impact of urban living.

Energy, water, indoor environmental quality, materials and so on are all taken into account in the buildings’ planning, design, and construction.

A few commercial buildings in Singapore have jumped on this green bandwagon – many urban planners now weave greenery throughout the city from green roofs that improve solar performance to cascading vertical gardens and verdant walls.

Just look at the architecture of PARKROYAL on Pickering or the interior landscape of Food Garden in Asia Square.


Asia Square has been oft upheld as a shining example – as host to the largest solar panel installation in Singapore and the first bio-diesel plant in a commercial development in the heart of the city.

Even the dining space in its Food Garden has a green wall that contributes to the building’s LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and Green Mark Platinum status.

The wall is designed out of completely recyclable materials, and is water and energy efficient when it comes to self-maintenance.

Condensed water droplets are collected from air handling units and used to water plants and in toilets in the building, saving precious utility bills.

The results are telling. Asia Square performs in the top 10 per cent of buildings in Singapore, in terms of water efficiency, according to the Public Utilities Board. Compared to other standard commercial buildings, Asia Square consumes 35 per cent less energy.

There is a common misconception that going green is costly, as green materials and products can be expensive.

The truth is that it does not need to be. Even if it does cost more initially, organisations should also balance this against the long-term savings they can reap.

The best returns on these investments are realised when environmental considerations are integrated into the process at the start, rather than as a last-minute effort.

Green building design must be thought of as an investment in the future. Every design element is a choice to reduce environmental impact while still being durable enough to prove functional.


The fight for climate change is not just the fight of building planners, large organisations or world leaders. It is a fight all of us are in, and losing will have colossal consequences.

Here are five simple ways that anyone, in particular interior designers, can consciously incorporate to design a green building:


The colour of buildings affect heat absorption. Light-coloured paint can help reflect the sun’s heat away from the building. According to Solar Today Magazine, white walls, for example, gain 35 per cent less heat than black walls, therefore requiring less energy to cool the building. Lighter-coloured and brighter aesthetics are thankfully also on trend.


Singapore is blessed with an abundance of sunlight and making use of this can save huge amounts of energy. For corporate buildings, position meeting rooms at the periphery, and use mirrors to reflect the light from windows.

An open-plan office made possible by natural lighting can also provide alternative work settings and collaborative areas for a conducive work environment.


With smart homes becoming the new norm, going green is easier than ever. Installing smart lighting that can be controlled with timers or light and motion sensors can decrease energy usage drastically. Smart home devices present the next step towards green buildings.


For instance, one could use linoleum rather than vinyl flooring, since linoleum is made substantially from jute, a naturally occurring fibre, and possesses natural bacteria-resistant properties that make it a perfect choice for the upkeep of spaces.

Every finished product should incorporate strategies for reducing energy consumption and highlight opportunities for reducing, reusing, and recycling waste, including numerous recycling bins within the buildings.


Consider how to incorporate environmentally-friendly options that stakeholders may be open to. While not everyone may be invested in fighting climate change because of misconceptions or even ignorance, interior designers can play a part in involving climate change in the conversation.


Singapore has pledged to reduce our emissions intensity by 36 per cent from the 2005 levels by 2030. While continuing to play our part in the global community, we must also ensure that the fight against climate change starts from within.

The upcoming Singapore Green Building Week seeks to catalyse behavioural change at the individual, interpersonal and community levels. Now, more than ever, is a good time to think about what exactly is needed to step up our game as a green city.

Most of us are not radical environmentalists, but all of us want a sustainable future.

We have the opportunity to create man-made structures that enhance the existing landscape. Designers therefore have a responsibility to find ways to balance aesthetics and functionality with choices to reduce the environmental impact.

From something as seemingly frivolous as changing colours, to something more strategic like working with various stakeholders to make calculated, eco-friendly plans, design can pave the way to a greener future.

When designers make the conscious decision to choose finishes, furniture and lighting that are sustainable, we increase our chances of having a better quality of life.

Design can be a key weapon to aid in Singapore’s fight against climate change. And it is up to us to design a future where we are not all living underwater.

Derek MacKenzie is managing director of designphase dba which has designed buildings like the new Tiong Bahru Plaza. 

Read more at http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/commentary-green-buildings-singapore-s-natural-ally-for-a-9183380